*Second in a three part series of me trying to describe the Bost-Connes algebra. Part I: $\mathbb{Q}$-Lattices and the Presentation. Part II: Equivalent description in terms of a Hecke Algebra. Part III: Describing the key Sub-algebra.*

In this post I hope to

*very briefly*describe the Hecke Algebra formulation of the Bost-Connes System. I'm embarrassed to say it, but I was initially afraid of the Hecke Algebra description (the wikipedia page didn't include much information I could understand). Now that I've read through it, I've realized that 1) it's not that difficult and 2) it's not really used in the more interesting generalizations to Complex and Real Multiplication (Shimura varieties and ${\mathbb{Q}}$-lattices seem much more important.) Nevertheless, I thought I'd talk about because it was the way the system was formulated in the original 1995 Paper ``Hecke Algebras, Type III Factors and Phase Transitions with Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Number Theory''. So for any ring $R$, we define:

$\displaystyle P_R := \left\{ \begin{pmatrix} 1 & b \\ 0 & a \end{pmatrix} : a, b \in R, a\; \text{invertible} \right\}$

And let $\Gamma_0 = P_\mathbb{Z}^+ = \left\{ \begin{pmatrix} 1 & n \\ 0 & 1 \end{pmatrix} : n \in \mathbb{N} \right\}$ and $\Gamma = P_\mathbb{Q}^+ = \left\{ \begin{pmatrix} 1 & a \\ 0 & k \end{pmatrix} : a, k \in \mathbb{Q}^+ \right\}$. We'll be looking at the coset space $\Gamma/\Gamma_0$ (actually the*double coset*$\Gamma_0 \char`\\ \Gamma/\Gamma_0$, but we aren't so worried about that).

**You have to be careful to watch the left and right cosets here.**First note that the left action of $\Gamma_0$ on $\Gamma/\Gamma_0$ has finite orbits. To see this, let $\gamma = \begin{pmatrix} 1 & a \\ 0 & k \\ \end{pmatrix} \in \Gamma$. Then $\begin{pmatrix} 1 & n \\ 0 & 1 \\ \end{pmatrix} \gamma \begin{pmatrix} 1 & m \\ 0 & 1 \\ \end{pmatrix} = \begin{pmatrix} 1 & n + a + mk \\ 0 & k \end{pmatrix}}$ for $n,m \in \mathbb{N}$. As $m$ varies, $mk$ only takes finitely many values modulo $\mathbb{Z}$, the number depending on the $b$, where $k = \frac{a}{b}$. Thus we do get a finite orbit for $\gamma \Gamma_0$. In fact, the same holds for the right action. (``Hecke Algebras, Type III Factors and Phase Transitions with Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Number Theory'' pg 17) We define the Hecke algebra $\mathcal{H}_\mathbb{Q} (\Gamma,\Gamma_0)$ as the convolution algebra of finitely supported functions $f: \Gamma_0 \char`\\ \Gamma \rightarrow \mathbb{Q}$ such that

$\displaystyle f(\gamma \gamma_0) = f(\gamma), \;\;\; \text{for all}\;\gamma\in\Gamma, \; \gamma_0\in\Gamma_0$

. The convolution is given by:$\displaystyle f_1 f_2 (\gamma) = \sum_{g \in \Gamma_0 \char`\\ \Gamma} f_1(\gamma g^{-1})f_2(g)$

And the involution by:$\displaystyle f^*(\gamma) = \overline{f(\gamma^{-1})}$

We can*complexify*this algebra using a tensor product with $\mathbb{C}$ to get:

$\displaystyle \mathcal{H}_\mathbb{C}(\Gamma,\Gamma_0) = \mathcal{H}_\mathbb{Q}(\Gamma,\Gamma_0) \otimes_\mathbb{Q} \mathbb{C}$

Similiar to before, we have a representation on the Hilbert space $\mathcal{H} = \ell^2 (\Gamma_0/\Gamma)$ defined by$\displaystyle (\pi(f)\psi)(\gamma) = \sum_{g \in \Gamma_0/\Gamma} f(\gamma g^{-1}) \psi(g)$

Where $\psi : \Gamma_0/\Gamma \rightarrow \mathbb{C} \in \ell^2(\Gamma_0/\Gamma)$. This allows the same $C^*$-algebra completition as before, and the time evolution is given by$\displaystyle \sigma_t(f)(\gamma) = \left(\frac{L(\gamma)}{R(\gamma)} \right)^{-it} f(\gamma)$

. Where $L(\gamma)$ is the cardinality of the left $\Gamma_0$ orbit of $\gamma \in \Gamma/\Gamma_0$ and $R(\gamma) = L(\gamma^{-1})$. The aforementioned paper actually derives the same set of generators and relations that I described in my last post, hence this Hecke algebra is the same as the algebra we built from commensurability on 1dQL's modulo scaling.Next post will describe the key subalgebra of the BC system.

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